Database Management System

Database management system has some base on different pillars that are given below in detail.

What is Data?

Data is a collection of facts, such as values or measurements. It can be numbers, words, measurements, observations or even just descriptions of things. Data can exist in a variety of forms as numbers or text on pieces of paper, as bits and bytes stored in electronic memory, or as facts stored in a person’s mind. Strictly speaking, data is the plural of datum, a single piece of information. In practice, however, people use data as both the singular and plural form of the word.

What is Information?

Information basically expands our knowledge beyond the range of our senses. We can capture data in information then move it about so that other people can access it at different times.

For example, if I take a picture of you the photograph is information of you. I can move the photo of you around; send it to other people via e-mail or use any other way.

I did not actually moving you around. I am simply allowing other people who can not directly see you from where they are to know what you look like. If I lose or destroy the photo, this does not change how you look. In computer science field we have data like scattered data like USA, martin, Car and information is whole record like martin has a car in USA.  Information is basically having complete subject line of the data that describe whole idea about the thing.

 What is Database?

A collection of information organized in such a way that a computer program can quickly select desired pieces of data. You can think of a database as an electronic filing system.

Traditional databases are organized by fields, records, and files. A field is a single piece of information; a record is one complete set of fields; and a file is a collection of records. For example, a telephone book is analogous to a file. It contains a list of records, each of which consists of three fields: name, address, and telephone number.

Databases are designed to offer an organized mechanism for storing, managing and retrieving information. They do so through the use of tables. If you’re familiar with spreadsheets like Microsoft Excel, you’re probably already accustomed to storing data in tabular form.

One of the technology terms that most people have become accustomed to hearing either at work or while surfing the Internet is the database. The database used to be an extremely technical term, however with the rise of computer systems and information technology throughout our culture, the database has become a household term. The definition of a database is a structured collection of records or data that is stored in a computer system. In order for a database to be truly functional, it must not only store large amounts of records well, but be accessed easily.

A database can be thought of as a set of logically related files organized to facilitate access by one or more applications programs and to minimize data redundancy. This concept does not imply that all data relating to a company’s business should be contained on a single database, but simply that all records in a database should be related and that redundant data should be minimized.

General Objectives of Database are.

  • Simplify the use of data files
  • Integrate existing data files
  • Share data among all users
  • Incorporate changes easily and quickly
  • Exercise central control over standards
  • Lower the cost of storing and retrieving data
  • Improve accuracy and consistency
  • Provide data security from unauthorized use
  • Identify which part of the world’s data is of interest to us.
  • Identify what specific objects in that part of the world’s data are of interest to us.
  • Identify a relationship between the objects.

Some famous databases are given below:

  • BlackRay
  • CSQL
  • Data Management Center (DMC)
  • Database Management Library
  • Dataphor
  • SQLDB
  • IBM DB2
  • MaxDB
  • Mckoi SQL Database
  • Microsoft Access
  • Microsoft SQL Server
  • Microsoft SQL Server Express
  • Microsoft Visual FoxPro
  • mSQL
  • MySQL
  • Openbase
  • OpenLink Virtuoso Universal Server
  • Oracle
  • SQLBase
  • SQLite
  • Sybase Adaptive Server Enterprise
  • UniData
  • VMDS

  What is Database Management System?

DBMS stands from Database Management System are a program that lets one or more computer users create and access data in a database. The DBMS manages user requests (and requests from other programs) so that users and other programs are free from having to understand where the data is physically located on storage media and, in a multi-user system, which else may also be accessing the data.

Any programming environment used to create containers, to manage human data, can be conceptualized as a Data Management System. Traditionally, the block of human data being managed is called a Database. Hence, in very simple terms these programming environments can be conceptualized as Database Management System, in short DMS system.

All Database Management System (like Oracle, My SQL) allows users to create containers for data storage and management. These containers are called ‘Cells’. The minimum information that has to be given to Oracle for a suitable container to be constructed which can hold free form human data is:

A standard user and program interface is the Structured Query Language (SQL). A newer kind of DBMS is the object-oriented database management system (ODBMS).

A DBMS can be thought of as a file manager that manages data in databases rather than files in file systems. A DBMS is usually an inherent part of a database product. On Pcs, Microsoft Access is a popular example of a single- or small-group user DBMS. Microsoft’s SQL Server is an example of a DBMS that serves database requests from multiple (client) users. Other popular DBMSs (these are all RDBMSs, by the way) are IBM’s DB2, Oracle’s line of database management products, and Sybase’s products.

A DBMS has to be persistent, that is it should be accessible when the program created the data ceases to exist or even the application that created the data restarted. A DBMS also has to provide some uniform methods independent of a specific application for accessing the information that is stored.

DBMS are for smaller organizations with small amount of data, where security of the data is not of major concern and RDBMS are designed to take care of large amounts of data and also the security of this data.

The first is implementation of a modeling language that serves to define the language of each database that is hosted via the DBMS. There are several approaches currently in use, with hierarchical, network, relational, and object examples. Essentially, the modeling language ensures the ability of the databases to communicate with the DBMS and thus operate on the system.

Second, data structures also are administered by the DBMS. Examples of data that are organized by this function are individual profiles or records, files, fields and their definitions, and objects such as visual media. Data structures are what allow DBMS to interact with the data without causing and damage to the integrity of the data itself.

A third component of DBMS software is the data query language. This element is involved in maintaining the security of the database, by monitoring the use of login data, the assignment of access rights and privileges, and the definition of the criteria that must be employed to add data to the system. The data query language works with the data structures to make sure it is harder to input irrelevant data into any of the databases in use on the system.

There are several ways database management has affected the field of technology. Because organizations’ demand for directory services has grown as they expand in size, businesses use directory services that provide prompted searches for company information. Mobile devices are able to store more than just the contact information of users, and can cache and display a large amount of information on smaller displays. Search engine queries are able to locate data within the World Wide Web. Retailers have also benefited from the developments with data warehousing, recording customer transactions. Online transactions have become tremendously popular for e-business. Consumers and businesses are able to make payments securely through some company websites.

 Database Components:

  • DBMS Engine accepts logical requests from various other DBMS subsystems, converts them into physical equivalents, and actually accesses the database and data dictionary as they exist on a storage device.
  • Data Definition Subsystem helps the user create and maintain the data dictionary and define the structure of the files in a database.
  • Data Manipulation Subsystem helps the user to add, change, and delete information in a database and query it for valuable information. Software tools within the data manipulation subsystem are most often the primary interface between user and the information contained in a database. It allows the user to specify its logical information requirements.
  • Application Generation Subsystem contains facilities to help users develop transaction-intensive applications. It usually requires that the user perform a detailed series of tasks to process a transaction. It facilitates easy-to-use data entry screens, programming languages, and interfaces.
  • Data Administration Subsystem helps users manage the overall database environment by providing facilities for backup and recovery, security management, query optimization, concurrency control, and change management.

Features of DBMS:

  • Query ability
  • Backup and replication
  • Rule enforcement
  • Security
  • Computation
  • Change and access logging
  • Automated optimization
  • Meta-data repository